Since the budget of Finance Minister Nicolas Marceau, November 20, Quebec has accelerated its borrowing program which was lagging behind compared to previous years.
On Tuesday, the province has easily been sold for $ 500 million of a bond maturing in 2043.
Last week, this is a slice of half a billion maturing in 10 years she had sold. Demand was strong enough to obtain an advantageous price a bit more like a slice sold on November 30. It was actually the first of its obligation, which expires on 1 September 2023.
The ball was opened a few days earlier by Finance Quebec, with him also $ 500 million.
It remains to find 6 billion by March 31 to meet the financing needs of the current year. At a cost of 500 million units, this means that Quebec must present a dozen times before the markets. This is a calendar quite feasible in a normal context likely to continue if the current U.S. fiscal impasse does not lead to a financial crisis in early 2013.
To such extraordinary circumstance, Quebec provided the loan of 3 billion intended to constitute a pool of liquidity in case of freezing of bond markets.
It is not known, however, what is the amount of loans actually made to date for this purpose.
The current delay in the borrowing program and the possibility of a freeze debt markets undermine custom Quebec ahead of its loan programs to make the most of the favorable lenders.
Fortunately, the financial needs of 2013-2014 are estimated at $ 15 billion, or 2.3 billion less than in 2012-2013. In 2014-2015, however, needs to climb 17.3 billion due to a portion of $ 12.3 billion of the current debt that matures.
Source : La presse.
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An exoplanet about the size of the Earth was found near Alpha Centauri B, one of the closest stars to our Sun, according to a study published Wednesday in the journal Nature.
If it is not yet dreamed of exoplanet astronomers, the twin sister of the Earth able to host liquid water on its surface and thus a form of potential life, a further step has been taken in this quest, say the authors.
This new exoplanet may well be too close to its star to be habitable, it would be so far the closest we ever discovered.
Identification by a team led by Xavier Dumusque of the Geneva Observatory, is an impressive feat that allows hope to find other planets similar to Earth in the vicinity of Alpha Centauri, perhaps even habitable zone this time.
Using the HARPS spectrograph of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, astronomers were able to “accumulate more than 450 measurements over a period of more than three years,” said in a statement the Université Pierre et Marie Curie which a researcher François Bouchy, from the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, collaborated on the study.
A careful analysis of the various signals received from the star Alpha Centauri B revealed the signal of a planet orbiting every 3.2 days. It is the movement of tiny star created by the gravitational pull of the exoplanet (only 51 cm per second), which allowed to detect, says UPMC.
A signal is particularly difficult to isolate because of the large background noise generated by the activity of the star is in a separate comment published by Nature Artie Hatzes astronomer of the Observatory State of Thuringia (Germany ).
“This planet mass comparable to Earth is it real? Only time will tell “allowing other scientists to examine the results of the study, says Mr. Hatzes. ”It is a small background signal of a signal stronger and more complex,” says Hatzes, for whom “the debate is still open” on the actual existence of the exoplanet.
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The Moon is born here very long apocalyptic collision with the Earth and, according to a study released Wednesday, the evidence confirming this theory is in a very little: a slight excess of “zinc heavy” discovered in lunar rocks.
Scientists sought this evidence since the first reported U.S. missions Apollo lunar samples in 1970. And this is the French Frédéric Moynier, Washington University in St. Louis and his team are the first to be found.
According to the theory of the “giant impact”, the Moon was created here about 4.5 billion years ago when the early Earth was violently struck by a celestial body named Theia (mother of the moon, Selene, in Greek mythology), as massive as Mars. By comparison, the asteroid would have later caused the extinction of the dinosaurs was only the size of Manhattan.
The collision released so much energy that Theia has melted and evaporated, along with much of the earthly. Part of the cloud of vaporized rock would again associate with the Earth, while the other is not far from solidified, giving birth to the Moon.
Over time, the giant impact hypothesis has become increasingly plausible, consistent with computer simulations and lunar samples are very poor in volatile elements (that evaporate easily), such as sodium, potassium, lead or zinc.
“But if these rocks were devoid of volatile elements after being sprayed during the giant impact, it would also have found a split between the different isotopes (variants) of the same element,” only the heaviest living in the rock said Frederic Moynier in a statement released by his university. The problem is that until now, no one was able to demonstrate such a “isotopic fractionation” on the Moon.
Mr. Moynier and his team have analyzed twenty rock samples collected at different points of the Moon for comparison with terrestrial rocks and ten Martian meteorites.
Mars is like Earth, it is very rich in volatile elements, including zinc, unlike the moon. But the zinc found in the lunar samples has atomic variants are much heavier than the earth’s surface or Mars, the study, published in the British journal Nature. Everything seems to indicate that the conditions prevailing at the time of the formation of the moon caused volatility and fragmentation much higher than those on Earth or Mars. And the simplest explanation and the most pausible such a result is the fusion scale caused by a giant impact, according to the authors.
“This work also has implications for the origin of the Earth, which is closely related to the origin of the Moon,” said Frederic Moynier.
Without the stabilizing influence of the moon orbiting our planet, the Earth would indeed be very different and less conducive to the development of humanity. It would turn faster, the days are shorter and stronger climate changing, say scientists.
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